Church of the Rock began when a small group of Christians, led by local jeweler Chuck Drinkwater, started meeting together in the late 1970s for prayer and Bible study. As their gathering grew, they rented space in downtown St. Albans. After several short-term pastors, the leaders of the church decided to affiliate with the Assemblies of God, an evangelical and Pentecostal denomination. In 1983, Reverend Roland Ludlam and his wife Suzanne moved to Vermont with their three children. Pastor Roland became the senior pastor of COTR and will continue to serve in that capacity until his expected retirement in 2020.

During Pastor Roland's tenure, the church grew from a small gathering of a several dozen to regular attendance in the hundreds. To meet the needs of its growing congregation, COTR has undergone various building and expansion projects. Between 1983 and 1985, COTR purchased the current site on Fairfax Road and established its original building, financed via faith promise giving. In 1988 COTR acquired the adjacent residential property. Then in the 1990s, more offices were added on, the parking lot was paved, and the current large octagonal sanctuary was built. The children's wing at the front of the building was expanded in 2007. In 2017, the church began major upgrades in the sanctuary. In addition to Sunday services and other church-related gatherings and functions, numerous community organizations utilize the facility as a meeting place throughout the week.